physical vulnerability in disaster

In the component-level approach, recommended in FEMA-P-58 (FEMA, 2012), the vulnerability functions are obtained by correlating the component level-based drifts directly to loss. Race, class, ethnicity and immigration status are additional drivers of flood-related social vulnerability since these may impose cultural and language barriers that affect residential locations in high hazard areas, pre-disaster mitigation, and access to post-disaster resources for recovery . An application example is presented in Figure 11, showing the strength of the physical vulnerability representativeness on the risk assessment outcomes (i.e., damage and economic loss). ASCE/SEI 41-06 (ASCE 2007); ATC-58-2 (ATC 2003), FEMA-356 (ASCE 2000), Minor hairline cracking; limited yielding possible at a few locations; no crushing (strains below 0.003). There are many classifications that rely on a qualitative description of the damage effects to a building, but they make use of the concept of building damage states, such as the one adopted in the earthquake loss estimation methodology developed by FEMA and NIBS, commonly known as HAZUS–MH (FEMA-NIBS, 1999, 2003). Defining the building structural system for vulnerability measurement. Partial collapse of chimneys. A business has to take several measures Physical Vulnerability Essay order to conquer vulnerability in the various fields it operates in. Vision 2000 (SEAOC 1995); ATC-58-2 (ATC 2003), FEMA-356 (ASCE 2000); ASCE/SEI 41-06 (ASCE 2007); ATC-58-2 (ATC 2003), Unreinforced Masonry Infill Wall Elements. As recommended in HAZUS-MH (FEMA-NIBS, 2003), the approach consists in generating the vulnerability function by convolving building response with the cumulative cost of a given damage state (damage-to-loss functions). These DPM were developed by asking 58 experts to provide low, best, and high estimates of the damage factor (i.e., the ratio of loss to replacement cost, expressed as a percentage) for Modified Mercalli Intensities (MMI) from VI to XII for 36 different building classes. It yields collapse multipliers which identify the occurrence of possible different mechanisms for a given masonry construction typology, given certain structural characteristics. Manhood is personified in those who leave behind safety. One of the main challenges that are often faced in measuring seismic vulnerability is the quantification and modeling of the uncertainties (both aleatory and epistemic) that would be involved at each stage of the vulnerability model’s construction process. if an area lies near the coast lines, fault lines, unstable hills etc. The Cyclonic storm ‘Vardah’ with wind speed of 120kmph impacted Chennai and its neighbouring coastal districts of Thiruvallur and Kancheepuram in Tamil Nadu on 12th December, 2016. On a global level, a very comprehensive global classification scheme for buildings, able to capture all different building types that exist around the globe, has been introduced by Brzev, Scawthorn, Charleson, Allen, Greene, Jaiswal, and Silva (2013). The conditions determined by physical, ... As the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction, UNDRR convenes partners and coordinates activities to create safer, more resilient communities. Represents a significant hazard to life safety resulting from failure of non-structural components. Figure 2. This paper provides a review of the current body of knowledge on the lived experiences of adults with a physical disability in natural disasters. The results of a vulnerability assessment can be presented either in the form of discrete values or continuous curves/functions. 13 main attributes and numerous attribute values (373 in total), Brzev, Scawthorn, Charleson, Allen, Greene, Jaiswal, & Silva (2013), Lungu, Aldea, Arion, Vacareanu, Petrescu, & Cornea (2001); Milutinovic & Trendafiloski (2003), Lang, Erduran, Kumar, Yasunov, & Tailiakova (2012), Lang, Molina-Palacios, Lindholm, & Balan (2012). They venture into the wilderness where help and modern conveniences are far removed. This means that (a) generally limited data is available for lower shaking intensities (i.e., intensity I < VI) where no visible damage is produced, and (b) data for a certain test bed is typically restricted to only one or two intensity grades. Building is considered as significantly damaged. Most of the existing models have been mainly constructed using the parametric regression models listed in Table 8. Poor people are more likely to live and work in areas exposed to potential hazards, while they are less likely to have the resources to cope when a disaster strikes. The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies is the world's largest humanitarian network and is guided by seven Fundamental Principles: Humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, universality and unity. The reverse side of the coin is capacity, which can be described as the resources available to individuals, households and communities to cope with a threat or to resist the impact of a hazard. Almost 2 million people were killed in disasters between1970 and 2011, representing 75 per cent of all disaster fatalities globally. it makes the area more vulnerable to disasters as compared to an area that is far away from the origin of the disaster. With respect to generating continuous physical damage-to-ground motion intensity relationships (i.e., fragility curves) using analytical methods, it is commonly assumed that these relationships take the form of lognormal cumulative distribution functions having a median value and logarithmic standard deviation, or dispersion. Vulnerability theory concentrates on the progression to vulnerability during predisaster conditions. Extensive cracking and hinge formation in ductile elements; limited cracking and/or splice failure in some non-ductile columns; severe damage in short columns. Lognormal cumulative distribution function, Yamaguchi & Murao (2000); Shinozuka, Feng, Lee, & Naganuma (2000); Sarabandi, Pachakis, King, & Kiremidjian (2004); Rota, Penna, & Strobbia (2008); Liel & Lynch (2012), Basöz, Kiremidjian, King, & Law (1999); O’Rourke & So (2000), Rossetto & Elnashai (2003); Amiri, Jalalian, & Amrei (2007). Very heavy damage (heavy structural damage, very heavy non-structural damage): Serious failure of walls; partial structural failure of roofs and floors. Another issue with the expert judgment-based methods is that they cannot be applied for the prediction of damage to regions or areas with no past earthquake experience. The vulnerability classes range from A to F, from the most vulnerable to the least vulnerable typologies, where the first three classes (A to C) cover adobe and stone houses, brick buildings, and reinforced-concrete constructions without any ERD, while vulnerability classes D to F address reinforced and confined masonry constructions, concrete buildings with a certain level of ERD, and steel and timber buildings. In doing so, local experts such as structural engineers or architects have to be consulted in order to identify the local construction typologies and to identify their major characteristics (Lang & Aldea, 2011). Disasters are caused by the interaction of vulnerability and hazards. Disasters jeopardize development gains. The concept of social vulnerability within the disaster management context was introduced in the 1970s when researchers recognized that vulnerability … Vulnerability Analysis David Alexander University College London 2. it makes the area more vulnerable to disasters as compared to an area that is far away from the origin of the disaster. Different elements can be distinguished: structural components and nonstructural components (see Figure 2). These methods use approaches that differ in terms of level of complexity, calculation efforts (in evaluating the seismic demand-to-structural response and damage analysis) and modelling assumptions adopted in the development process. They are also resourceful and resilient in a crisis and play a crucial role in recovery. 12 Chapter 2 Hazards, Vulnerability, and Disaster Risk Principal Hazards in the United States and Europe Hazards Hazards are potentially damaging physical events, phenomena, or human activities that cause loss of life, injury, property damage, social and economic disruption, or environmental degradation (Makoka & Kaplan, 2005). A Disaster Occurs When Hazards and Vulnerability Meet Show and discuss. Vulnerability refers to the inability (of a system or a unit) to withstand the effects of a hostile environment. Specifically, Figure 6-1 indicates the effects of a disaster are determined by three preimpact conditions—hazard exposure, physical vulnerability, and social vulnerability. The term physical vulnerability, which has been used in many disciplines and different contexts, defines the probability (or the potential) of a given physical component or element to be affected or damaged under a certain external excitation, e.g., a natural hazard such as an earthquake. Building is considered as slightly damaged. However, the main challenge in using these predefined physical vulnerability models, is how to identify suitable ones in order to ensure a reliable earthquake loss assessment. Physical vulnerability includes the Vulnerability in this context can be defined as the diminished capacity of an individual or group to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impact of a natural or man-made hazard. Vulnerability refers to the inability (of a system or a unit) to withstand the effects of a hostile environment. The “vulnerability” perspective in disasters, which is rapidly emerging as a dominant view in the field, assumes that a real disaster occurs when it strikes an … Children and Disasters: Understanding Vulnerability, Developing Capacities… 4 . For instance, HAZUS-MH (FEMA-NIBS, 2003) has provided default values for the Damage Factor, which include material and labor costs related to 33 occupancy classifications in the United States. 3Destruction (very heavy structural damage): Total or near total collapse. Gender analysis can help to identify those women or girls who may be vulnerable and in what way. Printed from Oxford Research Encyclopedias, Natural Hazard Science. Over the past ten years, several state-of-the-art frameworks and initiatives have been developed and implemented in order to build up a better strategy that would allow a reliable modeling of these uncertainties, and to maintain better seismic physical vulnerability modeling of individual structures or portfolios of buildings and infrastructure facilities. Each expert was asked to fill in a comprehensive questionnaire by utilizing his/her best knowledge. "Vulnerability" is defined as a condition resulting from physical, social, economic, and environmental factors or processes, which increases the susceptibility of a community to the impact of a hazard. Different concepts for damage classification exist, which are even based on different numbers of damage severity levels. Table 5 shows examples of building damage classifications that are based on a quantitative description and on which element deformations are related to average inter-story drift ratios of structural damage state. The IDA is done by subjecting a building model to nonlinear time-history analysis under a suite of ground-motion accelerograms that are scaled to increasing levels of the IM until collapse is reached (see Figure 7). However, selecting vulnerability models that had been originally developed for similar building typologies in other parts of the world can be a quite challenging process in order to ensure a reliable earthquake loss assessment and modeling, considering the fact that differences in both construction techniques and structural detailing between different countries are typically significant, even when buildings are nominally designed according to similar code provisions. “Exposure” is another component of disaster … The first European version of a DPM was based on Italian building damage data from the 1980 Irpinia earthquake (Braga, Dolce, & Liberatore, 1982). There are alternatives that have been introduced in the literature to generate these functions, depending on the needs of the study and the availability of data/information: The implementation of this approach is suited to studies of large populations of buildings. These activities have resulted in a wealth of seismic vulnerability models covering a wide range of building typologies and portfolios. UNISDR Terminology (2017) Vulnerability is one of the defining components of disaster risk. Latin American and African countries have suffered outages of … Calculation efforts and uncertainties associated to various methods of evaluating physical vulnerability. Here are some important human factors that tend to influence disaster severity. Examples of potentially vulnerable groups include: In a disaster, women in general may be affected differently from men because of their social status, family responsibilities or reproductive role, but they are not necessarily vulnerable. The transformation of the physical damage into economic loss can be conducted through the following total probability relationship: where n is the number of damage states considered, P(dsi | IM) is the probability of a building sustaining damage state dsi given the intensity measure IM; E(C>c|dsi) is the complementary cumulative distribution of the cost (loss) given dsi; E(C>c|im is the complementary cumulative distribution of cost (or loss) given a level of intensity IM. Figure 12. must be present for an event to constitute a natural disaster. Using the examples of several varied real-world disasters, critically analyse the concept of differential human vulnerability. These are made available in the literature, such as the U.S. vulnerability database provided in HAZUS-MH (FEMA-NIBS, 2003), the European vulnerability database by SYNER-G (2011a, 2011b), and the worldwide vulnerability database compiled within the framework of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) (Rossetto, D’Ayala, Ioannou, & Meslem, 2014; D’Ayala & Meslem, 2013). This paper discusses single-scale studies on disaster risk and vulnerability – i.e. In general, these existing models have been derived using a variety of approaches, assumptions, and methodologies that employ diverse structural modeling and analysis techniques (as discussed in the previous section). behavioral, psychological, and emotional issues in the aftermath of disaster. Table 3 lists the most widely-used classification schemes for either global or regional construction typologies along with the different classification criteria. The purpose of seismic vulnerability assessment is to estimate the damage level (in a deterministic or a probabilistic way) induced to a given building typology due to a given level of ground shaking. In the fields of earthquake engineering and seismic risk reduction the term “physical vulnerability” defines the component that translates the relationship between seismic shaking intensity, dynamic structural uake damage and loss assessment discipline in the early 1980s, which aimed at predicting the consequences of earthquake shaking for an individual building or a portfolio of buildings. The most frequent Nowadays, physical vulnerability has become one of the main key components used as model input data by agencies when developing disaster prevention and mitigation actions, code provisions, and guidelines. The methods vary from simplified, non-numerically-based, to nonlinear static and dynamic numerically-based analyses of increasing complexity and accuracy. In actual fact, vulnerability depends on several factors, such as people's age and state of health, local DISASTER VULNERABILITY, RISK . Since the late 1990s, many methods have been introduced for quantifying physical vulnerability. Hence, these physical vulnerability models will carry different types of intrinsic uncertainties of both aleatory and epistemic character. Nonstructural components can be divided into two categories: those which may contribute to the response behavior of the structure (and thereby to the monetary loss connected to the damage), and those which do not contribute to the response behavior of the structure, but which are important to consider as they contribute to the reconstruction costs. Intensity measures protect and help children for instance, people who live on plains more. Everyday use be repeated for the city we further appreciate the comments of two anonymous reviewers that allowed us greatly. 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